Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Note 1 - The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Note 1 - The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2016
Company And Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies Policies  
Going Concern

As shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company has incurred an accumulated deficit of $124,649,000 through December 31, 2016.  On a consolidated basis, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $19,000 at December 31, 2016. The Company's plan is to raise additional capital until such time that the Company generates sufficient revenues to cover its cash flow needs and/or it achieves profitability. However, the Company cannot assure that it will accomplish this task and there are many factors that may prevent the Company from reaching its goal of profitability.


The current rate of cash usage raises substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for one year after the date the financial statements were issued, absent any sources of significant cash flows. In an effort to mitigate this near-term concern the Company intends to seek additional equity or debt financing to obtain sufficient funds to sustain operations. However, the Company cannot provide assurance that it will successfully obtain equity or debt or other financing, if any, sufficient to finance its goals or that the Company will generate future product related revenues. The Company’s financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets, or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary in the event that the Company cannot continue in existence.


Advertising and Promotional Fees

Advertising expenses consist primarily of costs incurred in the design, development, and printing of Company literature and marketing materials. The Company expenses all advertising expenditures as incurred. There were no advertising expenses for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Basis of Consolidation

The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of OXIS International, Inc. and its subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. The Company's financial statements are prepared using the accrual method of accounting.

Cash and Cash Equivalents


The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.

Concentrations of Credit Risk

The Company's cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and accounts receivable are monitored for exposure to concentrations of credit risk. The Company maintains substantially all of its cash balances in a limited number of financial institutions. The balances are each insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. The Company does not have balances in excess of this limit at December 31, 2016.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, inventory, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of debt is based upon current interest rates for debt instruments with comparable maturities and characteristics and approximates the carrying amount.

Stock Based Compensation to Employees

The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation for employees in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 718.  The Company recognizes in the statement of operations the grant-date fair value of stock options and other equity-based compensation issued to employees and non-employees over the related vesting period.


The Company granted stock options to purchase -0- and 52,000 shares of the Company’s common stock to employees and directors during the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.  The fair values of employee stock options are estimated for the calculation of the pro forma adjustments at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions during 2015: expected volatility of 90%; average risk-free interest rate of 1.50% initial expected life of 5 years; no expected dividend yield; and amortized over the vesting period of typically one to four years. The Company reported an expense for share-based compensation for its employees and directors of $42,000 and $220,000 for the year ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Impairment of Long Lived Assets

The Company's long-lived assets currently consist of capitalized patents. The Company evaluates its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. If any of the Company's long-lived assets are considered to be impaired, the amount of impairment to be recognized is equal to the excess of the carrying amount of the assets over the fair value of the assets.

Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability approach, whereby deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax effects, based on current enacted tax laws, of temporary differences between financial and tax reporting for current and prior periods. Deferred tax assets are reduced, if necessary, by a valuation allowance if the corresponding future tax benefits may not be realized.

Net Income (Loss) per Share

Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net loss for the period by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net loss for the period by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, plus the potential dilutive effect of common shares issuable upon exercise or conversion of outstanding stock options and warrants during the period. The weighted average number of potentially dilutive common shares excluded from the calculation of net income (loss) per share totaled in 37,843,731 in 2016 and 12,525,721 in 2015.


Acquired patents are capitalized at their acquisition cost or fair value. The legal costs, patent registration fees and models and drawings required for filing patent applications are capitalized if they relate to commercially viable technologies. Commercially viable technologies are those technologies that are projected to generate future positive cash flows in the near term. Legal costs associated with patent applications that are not determined to be commercially viable are expensed as incurred. All research and development costs incurred in developing the patentable idea are expensed as incurred. Legal fees from the costs incurred in successful defense to the extent of an evident increase in the value of the patents are capitalized.


Capitalized cost for pending patents are amortized on a straight-line basis over the remaining twenty year legal life of each patent after the costs have been incurred. Once each patent is issued, capitalized costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the patent's remaining statutory life, estimated economic life or ten years.

Fixed Assets

Fixed assets is stated at cost. Depreciation is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which are 3 to 10 years for machinery and equipment and the shorter of the lease term or estimated economic life for leasehold improvements.

Fair Value

The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheets for receivables and current liabilities each qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of fair value because of the short period of time between the origination of such instruments and their expected realization and their current market rate of interest.  The three levels are defined as follows:


●  Level 1 inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets. The Company’s Level 1 assets include cash equivalents, primarily institutional money market funds, whose carrying value represents fair value because of their short-term maturities of the investments held by these funds.


●  Level 2 inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument. The Company’s Level 2 liabilities consist of liabilities arising from the issuance of convertible securities and in accordance with ASC 815-40: a warrant liability for detachable warrants, as well as an accrued derivative liability for the beneficial conversion feature. These liabilities are remeasured each reporting period. Fair value is determined using the Black-Scholes valuation model based on observable market inputs, such as share price data and a discount rate consistent with that of a government-issued security of a similar maturity.


●  Level 3 inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.


The following table represents the Company’s assets and liabilities by level measured at fair value on a recurring basis at December 31, 2016.


Description   Level 1     Level 2     Level 3  
    $     $     $  
Warrant liability           417,000        
Research and Development

Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and reported as research and development expense. Research and development costs totaling $975,000 and $1,000,000 for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.

Revenue Recognition

Product Revenue


The Company manufactures, or has manufactured on a contract basis, fine chemicals and nutraceutical products, which are its primary products to be sold to customers. Revenue from the sale of its products, including shipping fees, will be recognized when title to the products is transferred to the customer which usually occurs upon shipment or delivery, depending upon the terms of the sales order and when collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue from sales to distributors of its products will be recognized, net of allowances, upon delivery of product to the distributors. According to the terms of individual distributor contracts, a distributor may return product up to a maximum amount and under certain conditions contained in its contract. Allowances are calculated based upon historical data, current economic conditions and the underlying contractual terms.


License Revenue


License arrangements may consist of non-refundable upfront license fees, exclusive licensed rights to patented or patent pending technology, and various performance or sales milestones and future product royalty payments. Some of these arrangements are multiple element arrangements.


Non-refundable, up-front fees that are not contingent on any future performance by us, and require no consequential continuing involvement on our part, are recognized as revenue when the license term commences and the licensed data, technology and/or compound is delivered.  We defer recognition of non-refundable upfront fees if we have continuing performance obligations without which the technology, right, product or service conveyed in conjunction with the non-refundable fee has no utility to the licensee that is separate and independent of our performance under the other elements of the arrangement. In addition, if we have continuing involvement through research and development services that are required because our know-how and expertise related to the technology is proprietary to us, or can only be performed by us, then such up-front fees are deferred and recognized over the period of continuing involvement.


Payments related to substantive, performance-based milestones in a research and development arrangement are recognized as revenue upon the achievement of the milestones as specified in the underlying agreements when they represent the culmination of the earnings process.

Use of Estimates

The financial statements and notes are representations of the Company's management, which is responsible for their integrity and objectivity. These accounting policies conform to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and have been consistently applied in the preparation of the financial statements. The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.