The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2011
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
OXIS International, Inc. (collectively, OXIS or the Company) is engaged in the research, development and sale of products that counteract the harmful effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Oxidative stress refers to the situations in which the bodys antioxidant and other defensive abilities to combat free radicals (a.k.a. highly reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen) are overwhelmed and normal healthy balance is lost. The Companys current finished product and finished product candidates include therapeutic nutraceutical products, cosmeceutical products, functional foods and functional beverages. The Company also possesses intellectual property covering a number of proprietary compounds and formulations that may be out-licensed to biotech and pharmaceutical companies as drug candidates. The Companys primary focus currently is on products that incorporate the unique amino acid naturally occurring compound, L-Ergothioneine (ERGO), as a key component. Ergothioneine is produced only by microorganisms in soil and is not synthesized by humans, animals or plants. The Company has spent approximately $75 million in researching and developing ERGO, and now owns a patented process to synthesize commercial quantities of ERGO in a highly stable form that is highly soluble and tasteless, making it suitable for use in combination with other nutraceuticals and botanicals in a wide variety of dietary supplements, functional foods and beverages, and topical anti-aging products including lotions and creams.
In 1965, the corporate predecessor of OXIS, Diagnostic Data, Inc. was incorporated in the State of California. Diagnostic Data changed its incorporation to the State of Delaware in 1972; and changed its name to DDI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in 1985. In 1994, DDI Pharmaceuticals merged with International BioClinical, Inc. and Bioxytech S.A. and changed its name to OXIS International, Inc.
As shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company has incurred an accumulated deficit of $83,795,000 through December 31, 2011. On a consolidated basis, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $92,000 at December 31, 2011. The Company's plan is to raise additional capital until such time that the Company generates sufficient revenues to cover its cash flow needs and/or it achieves profitability. However, the Company cannot assure that it will accomplish this task and there are many factors that may prevent the Company from reaching its goal of profitability.
The current rate of cash usage raises substantial doubt about the Companys ability to continue as a going concern, absent any sources of significant cash flows. In an effort to mitigate this near-term concern the Company intends to seek additional equity or debt financing to obtain sufficient funds to sustain operations. The Company plans to increase revenues by introducing new nutraceutical products primarily based on its ergothioneine assets. However, the Company cannot provide assurance that it will successfully obtain equity or debt or other financing, if any, sufficient to finance its goals or that the Company will generate future product related revenues. The Companys financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets, or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary in the event that the Company cannot continue in existence.
The Company carries its accounts receivable at cost less an allowance for doubtful accounts. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates its accounts receivable and establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts, based on a history of past write-offs and collections and current credit conditions.
Advertising and promotional fees
Advertising expenses consist primarily of costs incurred in the design, development, and printing of Company literature and marketing materials. The Company expenses all advertising expenditures as incurred. The Company's advertising expenses were $158,000 and $106,000 for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Basis of Consolidation and Comprehensive Income
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of OXIS International, Inc. and its subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated. The Company's financial statements are prepared using the accrual method of accounting.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
The Company's cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and accounts receivable are monitored for exposure to concentrations of credit risk. The Company maintains substantially all of its cash balances in a limited number of financial institutions. The balances are each insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation up to $250,000. Through December 31, 2012, all balances in U.S. non-interest bearing accounts are fully insured. The Company had no balances in excess of this limit at December 31, 2011, although at times during the year, the Company may have exceeded the insured limits. Management monitors the amount of credit exposure related to accounts receivable on an ongoing basis and generally requires no collateral from customers. The Company maintains allowances for estimated probable losses, when applicable.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, inventory, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The fair value of debt is based upon current interest rates for debt instruments with comparable maturities and characteristics and approximates the carrying amount.
Stock Based Compensation to Employees
The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation for employees in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 718. The Company recognizes in the statement of operations the grant-date fair value of stock options and other equity-based compensation issued to employees and non-employees over the related vesting period.
The Company granted stock options to purchase 4,452,717 and 10,534,761 shares of the Companys common stock to employees and directors during the year ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The fair values of employee stock options are estimated for the calculation of the pro forma adjustments at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions during 2011: expected volatility of 12% to 14%; average risk-free interest rate of 1.76% to 2.28%; initial expected life of 5 years; no expected dividend yield; and amortized over the vesting period of typically one to four years. The Company reported an expense for share-based compensation for its employees and directors of $307,000 and $149,000 for the year ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Stock Based Compensation to Other than Employees
The Company granted stock options to purchase 500,000 and 1,000,000 shares of the Companys common stock to non-employees during the year ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively. The Company accounts for equity instruments issued in exchange for the receipt of goods or services from other than employees in accordance with ASC 718. Costs are measured at the estimated fair market value of the consideration received or the estimated fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably determinable. The value of equity instruments issued for consideration other than employee services is determined on the earlier of a performance commitment or completion of performance by the provider of goods or services. In the case of equity instruments issued to consultants, the fair value of the equity instrument is recognized over the term of the consulting agreement. The Company recognized $4,000 and $48,000 in share-based compensation expense for non-employees for the year ended December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
The Company states its inventories at the lower of cost or market. Cost has been determined by using the first-in, first-out method. The physical count of inventory takes place at the end of the year, and the Company makes estimates of inventory at interim dates. The Company periodically reviews its reserves for slow moving and obsolete inventory and believes that such reserves are adequate at December 31, 2011. Below is a summary of inventory at December 31, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Impairment of Long Lived Assets
The Company's long-lived assets include capitalized patents, goodwill, property and equipment related to the Company's manufacturing facilities in California. The Company evaluates its long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. If any of the Company's long-lived assets are considered to be impaired, the amount of impairment to be recognized is equal to the excess of the carrying amount of the assets over the fair value of the assets.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability approach, whereby deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax effects, based on current enacted tax laws, of temporary differences between financial and tax reporting for current and prior periods. Deferred tax assets are reduced, if necessary, by a valuation allowance if the corresponding future tax benefits may not be realized.
Net Income (Loss) per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net loss for the period by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing the net loss for the period by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, plus the potential dilutive effect of common shares issuable upon exercise or conversion of outstanding stock options and warrants during the period. The weighted average number of potentially dilutive common shares excluded from the calculation of net income (loss) per share totaled 433,848,998 in 2011 and 430,949,470 in 2010.
Acquired patents are capitalized at their acquisition cost or fair value. The legal costs, patent registration fees and models and drawings required for filing patent applications are capitalized if they relate to commercially viable technologies. Commercially viable technologies are those technologies that are projected to generate future positive cash flows in the near term. Legal costs associated with patent applications that are not determined to be commercially viable are expensed as incurred. All research and development costs incurred in developing the patentable idea are expensed as incurred. Legal fees from the costs incurred in successful defense to the extent of an evident increase in the value of the patents are capitalized.
Capitalized cost for pending patents are amortized on a straight-line basis over the remaining twenty year legal life of each patent after the costs have been incurred. Once each patent is issued, capitalized costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the patent's remaining statutory life, estimated economic life or ten years.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost. Depreciation is computed on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets, which are 3 to 10 years for machinery and equipment and the shorter of the lease term or estimated economic life for leasehold improvements.
The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheets for receivables and current liabilities each qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of fair value because of the short period of time between the origination of such instruments and their expected realization and their current market rate of interest. The three levels are defined as follows:
The following table represents the Companys assets and liabilities by level measured at fair value on a recurring basis at December 31, 2011.
The Company has not applied the provisions of SFAS No. 157 to non-financial assets and liabilities that are of a nonrecurring nature in accordance with FASB Staff Position (FSP) Financial Accounting Standard 157-2, Effective Date of FASB Statement No. 157 (FSP 157-2). FSP 157-2 delayed the effective date of application of SFAS 157 to non-financial assets and liabilities that are of a nonrecurring nature until January 1, 2009. FSP 157-2 will not have a material effect on the Companys financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the Companys financial position or results of operations.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred and reported as research and development expense.
The Company manufactures, or has manufactured on a contract basis, fine chemicals and nutraceutical products, which are its primary products to be sold to customers. Revenue from the sale of its products, including shipping fees, will be recognized when title to the products is transferred to the customer which usually occurs upon shipment or delivery, depending upon the terms of the sales order and when collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue from sales to distributors of its products will be recognized, net of allowances, upon delivery of product to the distributors. According to the terms of individual distributor contracts, a distributor may return product up to a maximum amount and under certain conditions contained in its contract. Allowances are calculated based upon historical data, current economic conditions and the underlying contractual terms.
License arrangements may consist of non-refundable upfront license fees, exclusive licensed rights to patented or patent pending technology, and various performance or sales milestones and future product royalty payments. Some of these arrangements are multiple element arrangements.
Non-refundable, up-front fees that are not contingent on any future performance by us, and require no consequential continuing involvement on our part, are recognized as revenue when the license term commences and the licensed data, technology and/or compound is delivered. We defer recognition of non-refundable upfront fees if we have continuing performance obligations without which the technology, right, product or service conveyed in conjunction with the non-refundable fee has no utility to the licensee that is separate and independent of our performance under the other elements of the arrangement. In addition, if we have continuing involvement through research and development services that are required because our know-how and expertise related to the technology is proprietary to us, or can only be performed by us, then such up-front fees are deferred and recognized over the period of continuing involvement.
Payments related to substantive, performance-based milestones in a research and development arrangement are recognized as revenue upon the achievement of the milestones as specified in the underlying agreements when they represent the culmination of the earnings process.
The Company operates in one reportable segment.
Use of Estimates
The financial statements and notes are representations of the Company's management, which is responsible for their integrity and objectivity. These accounting policies conform to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and have been consistently applied in the preparation of the financial statements. The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities revenues and expenses and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef