Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Note 1 - The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note 1 - The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2012
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Note 1 - The Company and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies


OXIS International, Inc. (collectively, “OXIS” or the “Company”) is engaged in the research, development and sale of products that counteract the harmful effects of “oxidative stress” and inflammation.  Oxidative stress refers to the situations in which the body’s antioxidant and other defensive abilities to combat free radicals (a.k.a. highly reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen) are overwhelmed and normal healthy balance is lost.  The Company’s current finished product and finished product candidates include therapeutic nutraceutical products, cosmeceutical products, functional foods and functional beverages. The Company also possesses intellectual property covering a number of proprietary compounds and formulations that may be out-licensed to biotech and pharmaceutical companies as drug candidates.  The Company’s primary focus currently is on products that incorporate the unique amino acid naturally occurring compound, L-Ergothioneine (“ERGO”), as a key component. Ergothioneine is produced only by microorganisms in soil and is not synthesized by humans, animals or plants.  The Company has spent approximately $75 million in researching and developing ERGO, and now owns a patented process to synthesize commercial quantities of ERGO in a highly stable form that is highly soluble and tasteless, making it suitable for use in combination with other nutraceuticals and botanicals in a wide variety of dietary supplements, functional foods and beverages, and topical anti-aging products including lotions and creams.


In 1965, the corporate predecessor of OXIS, Diagnostic Data, Inc. was incorporated in the State of California. Diagnostic Data changed its incorporation to the State of Delaware in 1972; and changed its name to DDI Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in 1985. In 1994, DDI Pharmaceuticals merged with International BioClinical, Inc. and Bioxytech S.A. and changed its name to OXIS International, Inc.


Going Concern


As shown in the accompanying consolidated financial statements, the Company has incurred an accumulated deficit of $88,205,000 through September 30, 2012.  On a consolidated basis, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $61,000 at September 30, 2012. The Company's plan is to raise additional capital until such time that the Company generates sufficient revenues to cover its cash flow needs and/or it achieves profitability. However, the Company cannot assure that it will accomplish this task and there are many factors that may prevent the Company from reaching its goal of profitability.


The current rate of cash usage raises substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern, absent any sources of significant cash flows.  In an effort to mitigate this near-term concern the Company intends to seek additional equity or debt financing to obtain sufficient funds to sustain operations.  The Company plans to increase revenues by introducing new nutraceutical products primarily based on its ergothioneine assets.  However, the Company cannot provide assurance that it will successfully obtain equity or debt or other financing, if any, sufficient to finance its goals or that the Company will generate future product related revenues.  The Company’s financial statements do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of recorded assets, or the amounts and classification of liabilities that might be necessary in the event that the Company cannot continue in existence.


Use of Estimates


The financial statements and notes are representations of the Company's management, which is responsible for their integrity and objectivity. These accounting policies conform to accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America, and have been consistently applied in the preparation of the financial statements. The preparation of financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities revenues and expenses and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Revenue Recognition


Product Revenue


The Company manufactures, or has manufactured on a contract basis, fine chemicals and nutraceutical products, which are its primary products to be sold to customers. Revenue from the sale of its products, including shipping fees, will be recognized when title to the products is transferred to the customer which usually occurs upon shipment or delivery, depending upon the terms of the sales order and when collectability is reasonably assured. Revenue from sales to distributors of its products will be recognized, net of allowances, upon delivery of product to the distributors. According to the terms of individual distributor contracts, a distributor may return product up to a maximum amount and under certain conditions contained in its contract. Allowances are calculated based upon historical data, current economic conditions and the underlying contractual terms.


License Revenue


License arrangements may consist of non-refundable upfront license fees, exclusive licensed rights to patented or patent pending technology, and various performance or sales milestones and future product royalty payments. Some of these arrangements are multiple element arrangements.


Non-refundable, up-front fees that are not contingent on any future performance by us, and require no consequential continuing involvement on our part, are recognized as revenue when the license term commences and the licensed data, technology and/or compound is delivered.  We defer recognition of non-refundable upfront fees if we have continuing performance obligations without which the technology, right, product or service conveyed in conjunction with the non-refundable fee has no utility to the licensee that is separate and independent of our performance under the other elements of the arrangement. In addition, if we have continuing involvement through research and development services that are required because our know-how and expertise related to the technology is proprietary to us, or can only be performed by us, then such up-front fees are deferred and recognized over the period of continuing involvement.


Payments related to substantive, performance-based milestones in a research and development arrangement are recognized as revenue upon the achievement of the milestones as specified in the underlying agreements when they represent the culmination of the earnings process.


Segment Reporting


The Company operates in one reportable segment.


Stock Based Compensation to Employees


The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation for employees in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 718.  The Company recognizes in the statement of operations the grant-date fair value of stock options and other equity-based compensation issued to employees and non-employees over the related vesting period.


The Company granted stock options to purchase 26,384,193 and 2,066,491 shares of the Company’s common stock to employees and directors during the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.  The fair values of employee stock options are estimated for the calculation of the pro forma adjustments at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model with the following weighted-average assumptions during 2012: expected volatility of 116%; average risk-free interest rate of 1.04% to 2.04%; initial expected life of 5 to 10 years; no expected dividend yield; and amortized over the vesting period of typically one to four years.  The Company reported an expense for share-based compensation for its employees and directors of $699,000 and $307,000 for the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.


Stock Based Compensation to Other than Employees


The Company accounts for equity instruments issued in exchange for the receipt of goods or services from other than employees in accordance with ASC 718. Costs are measured at the estimated fair market value of the consideration received or the estimated fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably determinable. The value of equity instruments issued for consideration other than employee services is determined on the earlier of a performance commitment or completion of performance by the provider of goods or services. In the case of equity instruments issued to consultants, the fair value of the equity instrument is recognized over the term of the consulting agreement. The Company recognized no expense in share-based compensation for non-employees for the nine months ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, respectively.


Earnings Per Share


Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing the net income or loss for the period by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period.  Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the earnings for the period by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, plus the potential dilutive effect of common shares issuable upon exercise or conversion of outstanding stock options and warrants during the period.  Since the Company incurred a net loss for the six months ended June 30, 2012 and 2011, all instruments convertible into shares of common stock are excluded from net diluted loss per share because of their anti-dilutive effect.  Total potentially dilutive shares excluded from the calculation of earnings per share at September 30, 2012 totaled 538,285,943.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


Management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the Company’s financial position or results of operations.


Fair Value Measurements


The carrying amounts reported in the balance sheets for receivables and current liabilities each qualify as financial instruments and are a reasonable estimate of fair value because of the short period of time between the origination of such instruments and their expected realization and their current market rate of interest.  The three levels are defined as follows:


·   Level 1 inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets. The Company’s Level 1 assets include cash equivalents, primarily institutional money market funds, whose carrying value represents fair value because of their short-term maturities of the investments held by these funds.


·   Level 2 inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument. The Company’s Level 2 liabilities consist of two liabilities arising from the issuance of convertible securities and in accordance with EITF 00-19: a warrant liability for detachable warrants, as well as an accrued derivative liability for the beneficial conversion feature. These liabilities are remeasured on a quarterly basis. Fair value is determined using the Black-Scholes valuation model based on observable market inputs, such as share price data and a discount rate consistent with that of a government-issued security of a similar maturity.


·   Level 3 inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.


The following table represents the Company’s assets and liabilities by level measured at fair value on a recurring basis at September 30, 2012.


Description   Level 1     Level 2     Level 3  
    $     $     $  
Warrant liability           514,000